16.4: Endocrine System (2023)

  1. last update
  2. Save as PDF
  • Page ID
  • \( \newcommand{\vecs}[1]{\overset { \scriptstyle \rightharpoonup} {\mathbf{#1}}}\) \( \newcommand{\vecd}[1]{\overset{-\!- \!\rightharpoonup}{\vphantom{a}\smash{#1}}} \)\(\newcommand{\id}{\mathrm{id}}\) \( \newcommand{\Span}{\mathrm{ span}}\) \( \newcommand{\kernel}{\mathrm{null}\,}\) \( \newcommand{\range}{\mathrm{range}\,}\) \( \newcommand{\RealPart }{\mathrm{Re}}\) \( \newcommand{\ImaginaryPart}{\mathrm{Im}}\) \( \newcommand{\Argument}{\mathrm{Arg}}\) \( \newcommand{\ norm}[1]{\| #1 \|}\) \( \newcommand{\inner}[2]{\langle #1, #2 \rangle}\) \( \newcommand{\Span}{\mathrm {span}}\) \(\newcommand{\id}{\mathrm{id}}\) \( \newcommand{\Span}{\mathrm{span}}\) \( \newcommand{\kernel}{\ mathrm{null}\,}\) \( \newcommand{\range}{\mathrm{range}\,}\) \( \newcommand{\RealPart}{\mathrm{Re}}\) \( \newcommand{ \ImaginaryPart}{\mathrm{Im}}\) \( \newcommand{\Argument}{\mathrm{Arg}}\) \( \newcommand{\norm}[1]{\| #1 \|}\) \( \newcommand{\inner}[2]{\langle #1, #2 \rangle}\) \( \newcommand{\Span}{\mathrm{span}}\)\(\newcommand{\AA}{ \unicode[.8,0]{x212B}}\)

    The endocrine system produces hormones that work to control and regulate many different body processes. The endocrine system coordinates with the nervous system to control the functions of other organ systems. Cells of the endocrine system produce molecular signals called hormones. These cells may make up endocrine glands, may be tissues, or may be found in organs or tissues that have functions other than hormone production. Hormones circulate throughout the body and stimulate a response in cells that have receptors capable of binding to them. Changes made to the host cells affect the function of the organ system to which they belong. Many of the hormones are secreted in response to signals from the nervous system, so the two systems work in concert to bring about changes in the body.


    Maintaining homeostasis within the body requires the coordination of many different systems and organs. A mechanism for communication between neighboring cells, and between cells and tissues in distant parts of the body, occurs through the release of chemicals called hormones. Hormones are released into body fluids, usually the blood, which carries them to their target cells where they cause a response. Hormone-secreting cells are often found in specific organs, called endocrine glands, and the cells, tissues, and organs that secrete hormones make up the endocrine system. Examples of endocrine organs include the pancreas, which produces the hormones insulin and glucagon to regulate blood glucose levels, the adrenal glands, which produce hormones such as epinephrine and norepinephrine that regulate stress responses, and the thyroid gland, which produces thyroid hormones. regulate metabolic rates.

    Endocrine glands are different from exocrine glands. Exocrine glands secrete chemicals through ducts that lead out of the gland (not into the blood). For example, sweat produced by sweat glands is released into ducts that carry the sweat to the surface of the skin. The pancreas has both endocrine and exocrine functions because in addition to releasing hormones into the blood. It also produces digestive juices, which are transported through ducts to the small intestine.

    CURRENT CAREER: Endocrinologist

    An endocrinologist is a doctor who specializes in the treatment of endocrine disorders. An endocrinologist specializes in the surgical treatment of endocrine diseases and glands. Some of the diseases treated by endocrinologists include disorders of the pancreas (diabetes mellitus), disorders of the pituitary gland (gigantism, acromegaly, and pituitary dwarfism), disorders of the thyroid gland (goiter and Graves' disease), and disorders of the adrenal glands (Cushing's disease and Addison's disease ).

    Endocrinologists are required to evaluate patients and diagnose endocrine disorders through extensive use of laboratory tests. Many endocrine diseases are diagnosed using tests that stimulate or suppress the function of endocrine organs. Blood samples are then taken to determine the effect of stimulating or suppressing an endocrine organ on hormone production. For example, to diagnose diabetes mellitus, patients must fast for 12 to 24 hours. They are then given a sugary drink, which stimulates the pancreas to produce insulin to lower blood glucose levels. A blood sample is taken one to two hours after consuming the sugary drink. If the pancreas is working properly, blood glucose levels will be within a normal range. Another example is the A1C test, which can be performed during a blood test. The A1C test measures average blood glucose levels over the past two to three months. The A1C test is an indicator of how well your blood glucose is being managed over a long period of time.

    (Video) Chapter 16: The Endocrine System - Part I

    Once a disease like diabetes is diagnosed, endocrinologists can prescribe lifestyle changes and medications to treat the disease. Some cases of diabetes mellitus can be managed with exercise, weight loss and a healthy diet. In other cases, drugs may be required to enhance the production or effect of insulin. If the disease cannot be controlled by these means, the endocrinologist may prescribe insulin injections.

    In addition to clinical practice, endocrinologists may also be involved in primary research and development activities. For example, ongoing islet transplantation research is investigating how healthy pancreatic islet cells can be transplanted into diabetic patients. Successful islet transplants may allow patients to stop taking insulin injections.

    How do hormones work?

    Hormones cause changes in target cells by binding to specific cell surface or intracellular hormone receptors, molecules embedded in the cell membrane or floating in the cytoplasm with a binding site that matches a binding site on the hormone molecule. That way, even though hormones circulate throughout the body and come into contact with many different types of cells, they only affect cells that have the necessary receptors. Receptors for a particular hormone may be found in or on many different cells, or may be restricted to a small number of specialized cells. For example, thyroid hormones act on many different types of tissues, stimulating metabolic activity throughout the body. Cells can have multiple receptors for the same hormone, but often also have receptors for different types of hormones. The number of receptors that respond to a hormone determines the sensitivity of the cell to that hormone and the resulting cellular response. In addition, the number of receptors available to respond to a hormone can change over time, resulting in increased or decreased cellular sensitivity. In upregulation, the number of receptors increases in response to increasing hormone levels, making the cell more sensitive to the hormone and allowing more cellular activity. When the number of receptors decreases in response to increasing hormone levels, called down-regulation, cellular activity decreases.

    Endocrine glands

    Endocrine glands secrete hormones into the surrounding interstitial fluid. These hormones are then diffused into the blood and transported to various organs and tissues within the body. Endocrine glands include the pituitary, thyroid, parathyroid, adrenal glands, gonads, pineal gland, and pancreas.

    The pituitary gland, sometimes called the hypophysis, is located at the base of the brain (Figure \(\PageIndex{1}\)one). It is attached to the hypothalamus. The posterior lobe stores and releases oxytocin and antidiuretic hormone produced by the hypothalamus. The anterior lobe responds to hormones produced by the hypothalamus by producing its own hormones, most of which regulate other hormone-producing glands.

    16.4: Endocrine System (2)

    The anterior pituitary gland produces six hormones: growth hormone, prolactin, thyroid-stimulating hormone, adrenocorticotropic hormone, follicle-stimulating hormone, and luteinizing hormone. Growth hormone stimulates cellular activities such as protein synthesis that promote growth. Prolactin stimulates milk production from the mammary glands. The other hormones produced by the anterior pituitary regulate the production of hormones by other endocrine tissues (Table \(\PageIndex{1}\)). The posterior pituitary gland is significantly different in structure from the anterior pituitary gland. It is a part of the brain, extending down from the hypothalamus, and contains mainly nerve fibers that extend from the hypothalamus to the posterior pituitary gland.

    The thyroid gland is located in the neck, just below the larynx and in front of the trachea (Figure \(\PageIndex{1}\)si). It is a butterfly-shaped gland with two lobes that are connected to each other. Thyroid follicle cells synthesize the hormone thyroxine, also known as T4because it contains four iodine atoms and triiodothyronine, also known as T3because it contains three iodine atoms. T3and T4are released by the thyroid in response to thyroid-stimulating hormone produced by the anterior pituitary gland and T3and T4have the effect of stimulating metabolic activity in the body and increasing energy use. A third hormone, calcitonin, is also produced by the thyroid. Calcitonin is released in response to rising concentrations of calcium ions in the blood and results in a decrease in these levels.

    (Video) Chapter 16: The Endocrine System - Part II

    Most people have four parathyroid glands. However, the number can vary from two to six. These glands are located on the posterior surface of the thyroid gland (Figure \(\PageIndex{1}\)si).

    The parathyroid glands produce parathyroid hormone. Parathyroid hormone increases blood calcium concentrations when calcium ion levels fall below normal.

    The adrenal glands are located on top of each kidney (Figure \(\PageIndex{1}\)do). The adrenal glands consist of an outer adrenal cortex and an inner adrenal medulla. These areas secrete different hormones.

    The adrenal cortex produces mineralocorticoids, glucocorticoids and androgens. The main mineralocorticoid is aldosterone, which regulates ion concentration in urine, sweat and saliva. The release of aldosterone from the adrenal cortex is stimulated by a decrease in blood sodium ion concentrations, blood volume or blood pressure, or by an increase in blood potassium levels. Glucocorticoids maintain proper blood glucose levels between meals. They also control the stress response by increasing the synthesis of glucose from fat and protein and interact with epinephrine to cause vasoconstriction. Androgens are sex hormones produced in small amounts by the adrenal cortex. They normally do not affect sexual characteristics and may supplement the sex hormones released by the gonads. The adrenal medulla contains two types of secretory cells: one that produces epinephrine (adrenaline) and another that produces norepinephrine (noradrenaline). Epinephrine and norepinephrine cause immediate, short-term changes in response to stressors, causing the so-called fight-or-flight response. Responses include increased heart rate, breathing rate, heart muscle contractions, and blood glucose levels. They also speed up the breakdown of glucose in skeletal muscle and stored fat in adipose tissue and redirect blood flow to skeletal muscle and away from the skin and viscera. The release of epinephrine and norepinephrine is stimulated by nerve impulses from the sympathetic nervous system originating in the hypothalamus.

    The pancreas is an elongated organ located between the stomach and the proximal part of the small intestine (Figure \(\PageIndex{1}\)Hey). It contains both exocrine cells that secrete digestive enzymes and endocrine cells that release hormones.

    The endocrine cells of the pancreas form clusters called pancreatic islets or islets of Langerhans. Among the cell types in each pancreatic islet are alpha cells, which produce the hormone glucagon, and beta cells, which produce the hormone insulin. These hormones regulate blood glucose levels. Alpha cells release glucagon as blood glucose levels fall. When blood glucose levels rise, beta cells release insulin. Glucagon causes the liver to release glucose into the blood, and insulin facilitates the uptake of glucose by the body's cells.

    The gonads—male testicles and female ovaries—produce steroid hormones. The testes produce androgens, with testosterone being the most important, which allow the development of secondary sex characteristics and the production of sperm. The ovaries produce estrogen and progesterone, which cause secondary sex characteristics, regulate egg production, control pregnancy, and prepare the body for childbirth.

    There are many organs whose primary functions are non-endocrine but also possess endocrine functions. These include the heart, kidneys, intestines, thymus gland and adipose tissue. The heart has endocrine cells in the walls of the atria that release a hormone in response to increased blood volume. It causes a decrease in blood volume and blood pressure and decreases Na concentration+in the blood.

    The gastrointestinal tract produces several hormones that aid in digestion. Endocrine cells are found in the lining of the gastrointestinal tract throughout the stomach and small intestine. They trigger the release of gastric juices, which help break down and digest food in the gastrointestinal tract.

    (Video) Human Biology Chapter 16 The Endocrine System

    The kidneys also have an endocrine function. Two of these hormones regulate ion concentrations and blood volume or pressure. Erythropoietin (EPO) is released by the kidneys in response to low oxygen levels. EPO triggers the formation of red blood cells in the bone marrow. EPO has been used by athletes to improve performance. But EPO doping has its risks, as it thickens the blood and increases the pressure on the heart. It also increases the risk of blood clots and therefore heart attacks and strokes.

    The thymus gland is located behind the sternum. The thymus produces hormones called thymosins, which help develop the immune response in infants. Adipose tissue, or adipose tissue, produces the hormone leptin in response to food intake. Leptin causes a feeling of satiety after eating, reducing the desire for further food.

    Table \(\PageIndex{1}\):Endocrine glands and their associated hormones
    Endocrine Gland Related Hormones Result
    Pituitary gland (anterior) growth hormone promotes the growth of body tissues
    prolactin promotes milk production
    thyroid stimulating hormone stimulates the release of thyroid hormones
    adrenocorticotropic hormone stimulates the release of hormones from the adrenal cortex
    follicle stimulating hormone stimulates gamete production
    luteinizing hormone stimulates the production of androgens by the gonads in men. stimulates ovulation and the production of estrogen and progesterone in women
    Pituitary gland (posterior) antidiuretic hormone stimulates water reabsorption by the kidneys
    oxytocin stimulates uterine contractions during childbirth
    Thyroid thyroxine, triiodothyronine metabolism stimulation
    calcitonin lowers blood Ca2+flat
    Parathyroid parathyroid hormone increases blood Ca2+flat
    Adrenal glands (cortex) aldosterone increases blood Na+flat
    cortisol, corticosterone, cortisone raise blood glucose levels
    Adrenal glands (marrow) epinephrine, norepinephrine stimulate the fight or flight response
    Pancreas insulin lowers blood glucose levels
    glucagon increases blood glucose levels

    Regulation of Hormone Production

    Hormone production and release is primarily controlled by negative feedback, as described in the discussion of homeostasis. In this way, the concentration of hormones in the blood is kept within a narrow range. For example, the anterior pituitary signals the thyroid to release thyroid hormones. Increasing blood levels of these hormones then feedback to the hypothalamus and anterior pituitary to inhibit further signaling to the thyroid gland (Figure \(\PageIndex{2}\)).


    16.4: Endocrine System (3)

    Goiter, a disease caused by iodine deficiency, results in the inability of the thyroid gland to form T.3and T4. The body typically tries to compensate by producing greater amounts of TSH. Which of the following symptoms would you expect goiter to cause?

    1. Hypothyroidism, resulting in weight gain, sensitivity to cold and reduced mental activity.
    2. Hyperthyroidism, resulting in weight loss, profuse sweating and increased heart rate.
    3. Hyperthyroidism, resulting in weight gain, sensitivity to cold and reduced mental activity.
    4. Hypothyroidism, resulting in weight loss, profuse sweating and increased heart rate.

    Unit Summary

    Hormones cause cellular changes by binding to receptors on or within target cells. The number of receptors on a target cell can increase or decrease in response to hormonal activity.

    (Video) Chapter 16.4 Adrenal Glands

    Hormone levels are controlled primarily through negative feedback, in which increasing levels of a hormone inhibits its further release.

    The pituitary gland is located at the base of the brain. The anterior pituitary receives signals from the hypothalamus and produces six hormones. The posterior pituitary gland is an extension of the brain and releases hormones (antidiuretic hormone and oxytocin) produced by the hypothalamus. The thyroid gland is located in the neck and consists of two lobes. The thyroid gland produces the hormones thyroxine and triiodothyronine. The thyroid also produces calcitonin. The parathyroid glands are located on the back surface of the thyroid gland and produce parathyroid hormone.

    The adrenal glands are located on top of the kidneys and consist of the adrenal cortex and the adrenal medulla. The adrenal cortex produces corticosteroids, glucocorticoids and mineralocorticoids. The adrenal medulla is the inner part of the adrenal gland and produces epinephrine and norepinephrine.

    The pancreas is located in the abdomen between the stomach and the small intestine. Clusters of endocrine cells in the pancreas form the islets of Langerhans, which contain alpha cells that release glucagon and beta cells that release insulin. Some organs have endocrine activity as a secondary function but have another primary function. The heart produces the hormone atrial natriuretic peptide, which works to reduce blood volume, pressure, and Na+concentration. The gastrointestinal tract produces various hormones that aid in digestion. The kidneys produce erythropoietin. The thymus gland produces hormones that help develop the immune system. The gonads produce steroid hormones, including testosterone in men and estrogen and progesterone in women. Adipose tissue produces leptin, which promotes satiety signals to the brain.

    Art Connections

    Figure \(\PageIndex{2}\): Goitre, a disease caused by iodine deficiency, results in the inability of the thyroid gland to form T3and T4. The body typically tries to compensate by producing greater amounts of TSH. Which of the following symptoms would you expect goiter to cause?

    A. Hypothyroidism, resulting in weight gain, sensitivity to cold and decreased mental activity.
    B. Hyperthyroidism, resulting in weight loss, profuse sweating, and increased heart rate.
    C. Hyperthyroidism, resulting in weight gain, sensitivity to cold, and decreased mental activity.
    D. Hypothyroidism, resulting in weight loss, profuse sweating, and increased heart rate.




    adrenal glands
    the endocrine gland associated with the kidneys
    decrease regulation
    decrease in the number of hormone receptors in response to increased hormone levels
    endocrine gland
    the gland that secretes hormones into the surrounding interstitial fluid, which then diffuses into the blood and is carried to various organs and tissues of the body
    exocrine gland
    the gland that secretes chemicals through ducts leading to skin surfaces, body cavities, and organ cavities.
    a chemical released by cells in one area of ​​the body that affects cells in other parts of the body
    intracellular hormone receptor
    a hormone receptor in the cytoplasm or nucleus of a cell
    the organ located between the stomach and the small intestine that contains exocrine and endocrine cells
    parathyroid gland
    the gland located on the surface of the thyroid that produces parathyroid hormone
    the endocrine gland located at the base of the brain consisting of an anterior and posterior region. also called the pituitary gland
    the gland behind the sternum that produces thymosin hormones that help develop the immune system
    thyroid gland
    an endocrine gland located in the neck that produces the thyroid hormones thyroxine and triiodothyronine
    upward adjustment
    increase in the number of hormone receptors in response to increased hormone levels
    (Video) Chapter 15 Endocrine Part A

    Contributions and References


    16.4: Endocrine System? ›

    The endocrine system produces hormones that function to control and regulate many different body processes. The endocrine system coordinates with the nervous system to control the functions of the other organ systems. Cells of the endocrine system produce molecular signals called hormones.

    What is the normal range of endocrinology? ›

    TSH normal values are 0.5 to 5.0 mIU/L. Pregnancy, a history of thyroid cancer, history of pituitary gland disease, and older age are some situations when TSH is optimally maintained in a different range as guided by an endocrinologist. FT4 normal values are 0.7 to 1.9ng/dL.

    What is an endocrine high? ›

    Endocrine hypertension is a type of high blood pressure caused by a hormone imbalance. Most often, these disorders originate in the pituitary or adrenal glands and can be caused when the glands produce too much or not enough of the hormones they normally secrete.

    What causes high endocrine levels? ›

    Endocrine hypertension can be caused when glands produce too much or not enough hormone, or when they are affected by tumors.
    • Primary Aldosteronism. ...
    • Cushing's Syndrome. ...
    • Pheochromocytoma. ...
    • Acromegaly. ...
    • Hyperthyroidism or Hypothyroidism. ...
    • Other Causes of Endocrine Hypertension and Related Syndromes:

    What are symptoms of an unhealthy endocrine system? ›

    What Are the Symptoms of an Endocrine Disorder?
    • Mood swings.
    • Fatigue.
    • Weakness.
    • Unintended weight fluctuations.
    • Changes in blood glucose levels or cholesterol levels.

    What should my hormone levels be? ›

    The normal values are from 0.7-1 and 3.5 ng/ml. AMH levels below 0.7-1 indicate a diminished ovarian reserve, while levels above 3.5 ng/ml indicate an excessive ovarian development. If the latter is the case, your doctor must take special care during the ovarian stimulation protocol of a fertility treatment.

    Does endocrine mean diabetes? ›

    Diabetes is the most common endocrine disorder in the United States, with over 10% of Americans struggling with either Type 1 or Type 2 diabetes.

    What 3 diseases can affect the endocrine system? ›

    Endocrine Disease Topics
    • Acromegaly.
    • Adrenal Insufficiency & Addison's Disease.
    • Cushing's Syndrome.
    • Cystic Fibrosis link.
    • Graves' Disease.
    • Hashimoto's Disease.

    What are the 4 major endocrine conditions? ›

    Types of Endocrine Disorders
    • Adrenal Insufficiency. Adrenal glands, located on top of the kidneys, produce various hormones. ...
    • Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia (CAH) ...
    • Hyperaldosteronism. ...
    • Osteoporosis. ...
    • Pituitary Disorders. ...
    • Thyroid Disorders.

    What is the most common endocrine problem? ›

    In the United States, the most common endocrine disease is diabetes. There are many others. They are usually treated by controlling how much hormone your body makes. Hormone supplements can help if the problem is too little of a hormone.

    Can you fix your endocrine system? ›

    For many people, small and simple lifestyle changes can help restore proper levels of hormones in the body. A well-balanced diet and healthy habits may improve your hormonal health and allow you to feel your best.

    How do you fix endocrine imbalance? ›

    If you have lower-than-normal hormone levels, the main treatment is hormone replacement therapy. Depending on which hormone is deficient, you may take oral medication (pills) or injection medication.

    How do you clear your endocrine system? ›

    10 Natural Ways to Balance Your Hormones
    1. Eat enough protein at every meal. ...
    2. Engage in regular exercise. ...
    3. Maintain a moderate weight. ...
    4. Take care of your gut health. ...
    5. Lower your sugar intake. ...
    6. Try stress reduction techniques. ...
    7. Consume healthy fats. ...
    8. Get consistent, high quality sleep.
    Jan 31, 2022

    Are endocrine system disorders life threatening? ›

    Endocrine disorders, if untreated, can lead to life-threatening conditions. The patient must receive immediate medical attention if the symptoms persist for more than three days. Some of the risk factors associated with endocrine disorders include: A low heart rate may lead to heart failure.

    What is the most common female endocrine disorder? ›

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common endocrinopathy among women of reproductive age, impacting 5-10% of premenopausal American women. During the reproductive years, women with PCOS seek medical attention related to infertility, hirsutism, and acne.

    What blood tests check endocrine system? ›

    Types of Endocrine Tests
    • Cortisol Blood Test. The hormone cortisol helps your body handle physical stress from illness, injury or another cause. ...
    • Thyroid Gland Tests. We use thyroid gland tests to check for thyroid disorders such as hypothyroidism or hyperthyroidism. ...
    • Prolactin Test.

    What happens if hormone levels are too high? ›

    High estrogen levels can cause symptoms such as irregular or heavy periods, weight gain, fatigue, and fibroids in females. In males, they can cause breast tissue growth, erectile dysfunction, and infertility.

    What is abnormal hormone levels? ›

    Hormonal imbalances occur when there is too much or too little of a hormone in the blood. Symptoms depend on which hormone is out of balance and the person's natal sex. Common symptoms include weight changes, lower sex drive, and acne. Hormones are chemicals produced by glands in the endocrine system.

    What is the most common endocrine system disorder seen in older adults? ›

    The diseases of thyroid glands will be discussed in a subsequent article. If menopause is excluded as a disease process, the most common dis- eases of the endocrine system in old age are the same as in middle age: diabetes mellitus, thyroid conditions, and obesity.

    Is endocrine autoimmune? ›

    Endocrine autoimmune diseases comprise a large and diverse group of debilitating disorders where the immune system attacks cells of hormone-producing organs. Examples are destruction of the pancreatic β-cells in T1D16 and the adrenal cortex in AAD.

    What are the autoimmune endocrine disorders? ›

    Autoimmune endocrine diseases are serious disorders that utilize immense health care resources and cause tremendous disability. They include type 1 diabetes mellitus, thyroiditis, Graves disease, Addison disease, and polyglandular syndromes.

    Is Lupus an endocrine disorder? ›

    In SLE the autoimmune process affects the neuroendocrine axis. Stress modulates disease expression in lupus patients. The disease affects the endocrine system. Hypothyroidism occurs in SLE patients in a higher rate than that of the general population.

    Can endocrine problems cause anxiety? ›

    For example, patients with hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism can experience erratic and unpredictable mental states. Commonly reported are anxiety, brain fog, mania, lethargy, depressive mood, and confusion. Dr. Rice also explains that the adrenal glands help to regulate our internal stress response.

    What are the endocrine causes of fatigue? ›

    Various hormone imbalances may also lead to fatigue symptoms including adrenal problems (commonly called Adrenal Fatigue). Thyroid problems (like Hashimoto's Disease), testosterone related issues in men, undiagnosed diabetes, and pituitary problems among several others.

    What is the best way to diagnose an endocrine disorder? ›

    These tests and tools are used to diagnose and evaluate endocrine disorders:
    1. CT scan.
    2. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA)
    3. Nuclear medicine studies.
    4. Parathyroid ultrasound.
    5. Post-thyroidectomy ultrasound.
    6. Thyroglobulin stimulation studies.
    7. Thyroid ultrasound.
    8. Ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration.

    What happens if the endocrine system does not function properly? ›

    This imbalance can cause health problems, such as weight gain, high blood pressure and changes in sleep, mood and behavior. Many things can affect how your body creates and releases hormones. Illness, stress and certain medications can cause a hormone imbalance.

    What is the most common disease treated by an endocrinologist? ›

    Diabetes is one of the most common metabolic conditions. An endocrinologist can specialize in the treatment of different kinds of diabetes and other metabolic conditions such as obesity.

    What drugs affect the endocrine system? ›

    • Alcohol.
    • Cocaine.
    • Fentanyl.
    • Heroin.
    • Methamphetamine.
    Oct 17, 2022

    What are 2 main organs in the endocrine system? ›

    The endocrine system includes the hypothalamus, pineal gland, pituitary gland, thyroid gland, parathyroid glands, thymus, adrenal glands, and pancreas. It also includes the testes in males and the ovaries and placenta (during pregnancy) in females. Glands and organs of the endocrine system.

    What are endocrine problems in adults? ›

    Common Endocrine Disorders

    Hypothyroidism (underactive thyroid) Hyperthyroidism (overactive thyroid) Hashimoto's thyroiditis (an autoimmune disease resulting in low production of thyroid hormone and hypothyroidism) Graves' disease (a type of hyperthyroidism resulting in excessive production of thyroid hormone)

    Is endocrine a disability? ›

    Even the smallest change in hormone levels can produce complications throughout your body. As a result of the debilitating effects of some endocrine disorders, they may be recognized by the Social Security Administration (SSA) as a disabling disease and be eligible for disability.

    What is a common disorder with the endocrine system? ›

    Diabetes is the most common endocrine disorder diagnosed in the United States, but there are many others. They include: Adrenal insufficiency: This occurs when the adrenal gland releases too little cortisol and/or aldosterone.

    What should I eat for endocrine? ›

    Calcium, vitamin C, and B vitamins are important to the formation and function of hormones. Leafy greens like kale, spinach, broccoli, turnip greens, mustard greens, and asparagus are always a good place to find vitamins and minerals.

    What exercises improve endocrine system? ›

    Exercises that help boost hormone levels

    High-intensity exercises like squats, lunges, pull-ups, crunches and pushups are ideal, with minimal rest time in between. The more intense a workout, the more these hormones are released.

    What are the 5 hormonal imbalances? ›

    The five most important hormonal imbalances are diabetes, hypo- and hyperthyroidism, adrenal insufficiency, polycystic ovary syndrome, and hypogonadism.

    How long does it take to reset your endocrine system? ›

    How long does it take to balance hormones? As you can imagine, this varies. However, research shows that by taking a holistic, well-rounded approach, you can balance your hormones in less than four months. In fact, you can significantly reduce the amount of chemicals and pesticides in your body in one week.

    What causes the endocrine system to malfunction? ›

    Endocrine conditions can be due to three main causes: 1) Underproduction of a certain hormone; 2) Overproduction of a certain hormone; 3) A malfunction in the production line of a hormone or in its ability to function correctly.

    How long does it take for endocrine system to recover? ›

    The endocrine system can become fatigued just like a muscle that is continually overworked. At some point it just can't produce the stress hormones as it should. A tired ( but not damaged ) muscle may recover in 24 to 48 hours, but it takes an overused endocrine system weeks to recover.

    What are endocrine issues with age? ›

    Hormones are also broken down (metabolized) more slowly. Many of the organs that produce hormones are controlled by other hormones. Aging also changes this process. For example, an endocrine tissue may produce less of its hormone than it did at a younger age, or it may produce the same amount at a slower rate.

    What might happen to a person whose nervous and endocrine systems fail? ›

    The nervous system and the endocrine system are closely interrelated and both involved intimately in maintaining homeostasis. Endocrine dysfunctions may lead to various neurologic manifestations such as headache, myopathy, and acute encephalopathy including coma.

    What endocrine conditions cause dizziness? ›

    Endocrine diseases that cause dizziness

    Hyperthyroidism (too much thyroid hormone) may cause palpitations, shortness of breath, and lightheadedness. Hypothyroidism (too little thyroid hormone) may cause low blood pressure and a decreased heart rate leading to lightheadedness, weakness, lethargy, and chills.

    What are the diseases of the female endocrine system? ›

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), menstrual disorders, and menopause are all caused by changes to the female hormone system. These conditions can often be associated with metabolic changes, in addition to affecting your ability to conceive.

    Is menopause an endocrine disease? ›

    At menopause, hormone levels don't always decline uniformly. They alternately rise and fall again. Changing ovarian hormone levels affect the other glands in the body, which together make up the endocrine system.

    What is endocrine disorders symptom? ›

    While each endocrine disorder has its own set of symptoms, some of the most common symptoms found among many of them include: Mood swings. Fatigue. Weakness. Unintended weight fluctuations.

    What are normal endocrine levels? ›

    TSH normal values are 0.5 to 5.0 mIU/L. Pregnancy, a history of thyroid cancer, history of pituitary gland disease, and older age are some situations when TSH is optimally maintained in a different range as guided by an endocrinologist. FT4 normal values are 0.7 to 1.9ng/dL.

    Do endocrinologists test female hormones? ›

    Endocrinologists can check your hormone levels and are trained to look for common hormonal disorders like infertility, diabetes, stunted growth, thyroid disease, osteoporosis, metabolic syndrome, and many others.

    What are normal female hormone levels? ›

    Estrogen levels can be determined by a blood test. While it can vary from person to person, these are what's considered the normal ranges in picograms per milliliter (pg/mL): Adult female, premenopausal: 15-350 pg/mL. Adult female, postmenopausal: <10 pg/mL.

    What is the endocrine gland blood sugar level? ›

    The role of the endocrine system

    Pancreas – regulates blood glucose levels. Adrenal gland – increases blood glucose levels and speeds up heart rate. Thyroid gland – helps to regulate our metabolism. Pituitary gland – stimulates growth.

    What is the most common endocrinology disease? ›

    In the United States, the most common endocrine disease is diabetes. There are many others. They are usually treated by controlling how much hormone your body makes.

    What does an endocrine test show? ›

    An endocrine test can help diagnose a variety of specialities and hormonal diseases, including: pituitary thyroid adrenal bone and parathyroid (gland beside thyroid gland) neuroendocrine tumours (in cells of endocrine and nervous systems) carcinoid tumours (slow-growing neuroendocrine tumours)

    What are hormone levels in PCOS? ›

    FSH and LH are often both in the range of about 4-8 in young fertile women. In women with polycystic ovaries the LH to FSH ratio is often higher – for example 2:1, or even 3:1. With PCOS we often see the FSH in the range of about 4-8 as well – but often the LH levels are 10-20.

    What does an estradiol level of 15 mean? ›

    According to Mayo Medical Laboratories, normal levels of estradiol (E2) for menstruating women range from 15 to 350 picograms per milliliter (pg/mL). For postmenopausal women, normal levels should be lower than 10 pg/mL. Estradiol levels that are higher than normal may suggest: early puberty.

    What is the difference between endocrine and diabetes? ›

    Diabetologists are more specific to diabetes and its management, while Endocrinologists are more towards the entire endocrine system including Pancreas and Insulin. Thus, for further guidance on effective insulin management, Diabetologists may seek endocrinologists' advice.

    What is Type 1 diabetes endocrine system? ›

    Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is an endocrine disorder characte-rized by autoimmune destruction of insulin-producing pancreatic β-cells, which subsequently reduces insulin production and induces metabolic dysregulation[1-4].

    What can trigger endocrine disorders? ›

    Endocrine conditions can be due to three main causes: 1) Underproduction of a certain hormone; 2) Overproduction of a certain hormone; 3) A malfunction in the production line of a hormone or in its ability to function correctly.

    How do doctors check the endocrine system? ›

    These tests and tools are used to diagnose and evaluate endocrine disorders: CT scan. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) Nuclear medicine studies.

    Can a blood test detect endocrine system? ›

    Blood tests are used to diagnose various endocrinology disorders by determining hormone levels and glucose levels that may be causing problems with the body's metabolism.

    When should a woman see an endocrinologist? ›

    If your primary healthcare provider suspects your body may be having issues with certain hormones, they may have you see an endocrinologist for a proper diagnosis and treatment plan. An endocrinologist could also be part of a team of healthcare providers to treat certain conditions such as cancers and fertility issues.


    1. Chapter 15 Endocrine Part B
    (WGTC Biology)
    2. Baker Pathophysiology Module 2 Chapter 16 endocrine system d
    3. Chapter 16.1 - Endocrine System
    (Adarrel Omar Fisher)
    4. 2402 Chapter 16a
    (Katherine Nellessen)
    5. Endocrine System - Part 3
    (Jeff Keyte)
    6. Endocrine system
    (Christy Queen)


    Top Articles
    Latest Posts
    Article information

    Author: Manual Maggio

    Last Updated: 07/30/2023

    Views: 5283

    Rating: 4.9 / 5 (69 voted)

    Reviews: 92% of readers found this page helpful

    Author information

    Name: Manual Maggio

    Birthday: 1998-01-20

    Address: 359 Kelvin Stream, Lake Eldonview, MT 33517-1242

    Phone: +577037762465

    Job: Product Hospitality Supervisor

    Hobby: Gardening, Web surfing, Video gaming, Amateur radio, Flag Football, Reading, Table tennis

    Introduction: My name is Manual Maggio, I am a thankful, tender, adventurous, delightful, fantastic, proud, graceful person who loves writing and wants to share my knowledge and understanding with you.