Interactive Guide to the Endocrine System | Internal body (2023)

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Interactive Guide to the Endocrine System | Internal body (2)

(Video) The Endocrine System, Overview, Animation

The endocrine system includes all the glands in the body and the hormones produced by these glands. The glands are controlled directly by stimulation from the nervous system as well as chemical receptors in the blood and hormones produced by other glands. By regulating the functions of the organs in the body, these glands help maintain the body's homeostasis. Cellular metabolism, reproduction, sexual development, sugar and mineral homeostasis, heart rate, and digestion are among the many processes regulated by the actions of hormones.

Anatomy of the Endocrine System


Thehypothalamusis part of itbrainlocated above and in front of the brainstem and below thechamber. It serves many different functions in thenervous system, and is also responsible for direct control of the endocrine system through the pituitary gland. The hypothalamus contains special cells called neurosecretory cells - neurons that secrete hormones:

  • Thyrotropin Releasing Hormone (TRH)
  • Growth Hormone Releasing Hormone (GHRH)
  • Growth hormone inhibiting hormone (GHIH)
  • Gonadotropin Releasing Hormone (GnRH)
  • Corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH)
  • Oxytocin
  • antidiuretic hormone (ADH)

All releasing and inhibiting hormones affect the function of the anterior pituitary gland. TRH stimulates the anterior pituitary gland to release thyroid-stimulating hormone. GHRH and GHIH regulate the release of growth hormone—GHRH stimulates the release of growth hormone, GHIH inhibits its release. GnRH stimulates the release of follicle-stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone while CRH stimulates the release of adrenocorticotropic hormone. The last two hormones - oxytocin and antidiuretic hormone - are produced by the hypothalamus and transported to the posterior pituitary, where they are stored and later released.

Mucous membrane

Themucosa, also known as the pituitary gland, is a small pea-sized piece of tissue attached to the lower part of the brain's hypothalamus. Manyblood vesselsthey surround the pituitary gland to carry the hormones it releases throughout the body. It is in a slight depression atsphenoid bonecalled the sella turcica, the pituitary gland is actually made up of 2 completely separate structures: the posterior and the anterior pituitary gland.

Posterior pituitary

The posterior pituitary is actually not glandular tissue at all, but nervous tissue. The posterior pituitary is a small extension of the hypothalamus through which the axons of some of the neurosecretory cells of the hypothalamus extend. These neurosecretory cells create 2 hormones in the hypothalamus that are stored and released by the posterior pituitary gland:

(Video) Endocrine System, Part 1 - Glands & Hormones: Crash Course Anatomy & Physiology #23

  • Oxytocin triggers uterine contractions during labor and the release of milk during breastfeeding.
  • Antidiuretic hormone (ADH) prevents water loss in the body by increasing water reabsorption by the kidneys and decreasing blood flow to the sweat glands.

Anterior pituitary gland

The anterior pituitary gland is the actual glandular part of the pituitary gland. The function of the anterior pituitary gland is controlled by the releasing and inhibiting hormones of the hypothalamus. The anterior pituitary gland produces 6 important hormones:

  • Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), as its name suggests, is a tropic hormone responsible for stimulating the thyroid gland.
  • Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) stimulates the adrenal cortex, the outer part of the adrenal gland, to produce its hormones.
  • Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) stimulates the follicle cells of the gonads to produce gametes - eggs in females and sperm in males.
  • Luteinizing hormone (LH) stimulates the gonads to produce the sex hormones - estrogen in women and testosterone in men.
  • Human growth hormone (HGH) affects many target cells throughout the body by stimulating their growth, repair and reproduction.
  • Prolactin (PRL) has many effects on the body, the main of which is that it stimulates themammary glandsof the breast to produce milk.


Theepiphysisit is a small, pine-shaped mass of glandular tissue located just behind the ventricle of the brain. The pineal gland produces the hormone melatonin that helps regulate the human sleep-wake cycle, known as the circadian rhythm. The activity of the pineal gland is inhibited by stimulation from retinal photoreceptors. This sensitivity to light causes melatonin to be produced only in low light or darkness. Increased melatonin production causes people to feel sleepy at night when the pineal gland is active.

Thyroid gland

Thethyroid glandis a butterfly-shaped gland located at the base of the throat and wraps around the lateral sides of the trachea. The thyroid gland produces 3 main hormones:

  • Calcitonin
  • Triiodothyronine (T3)
  • Thyroxine (T4)

Calcitonin is released when calcium ion levels in the blood rise above a certain set point. Calcitonin works to reduce the concentration of calcium ions in the blood by aiding the absorption of calcium into the bone matrix. The hormones T3 and T4 work together to regulate the body's metabolic rate. Increased levels of T3 and T4 lead to increased cellular activity and energy use in the body.

Parathyroid glands

Theparathyroid glandsare 4 small masses of glandular tissue located on the back of the thyroid gland. The parathyroid glands produce the hormone parathyroid hormone (PTH), which is involved in calcium ion homeostasis. PTH is released by the parathyroid glands when blood calcium ion levels fall below a set point. PTH stimulates osteoclasts to break down calcium-containing bone matrix to release free calcium ions into the bloodstream. PTH also triggers the kidneys to return calcium ions that have been filtered from the blood back into the bloodstream, so that it is conserved.

(Video) Journey Through the Endocrine System - Interactive Tool

Adrenal glands

Theadrenal glandsare a pair of roughly triangular glands located immediately superior to the kidneys. The adrenal glands are each made up of 2 distinct layers, each with their own unique functions: the outer adrenal cortex and the inner medulla.

Adrenal cortex

The adrenal cortex produces many cortical hormones in 3 categories: glucocorticoids, mineralocorticoids, and androgens.

  • Glucocorticoids have many different functions, including breaking down proteins and lipids to produce glucose. Glucocorticoids also work to reduce inflammation and the immune response.
  • Mineralocorticoids, as their name suggests, are a group of hormones that help regulate the concentration of mineral ions in the body.
  • Androgens, such as testosterone, are produced at low levels in the adrenal cortex to regulate the growth and activity of cells that are receptive to male hormones. In adult men, the amount of androgens produced by the testes is many times greater than the amount produced by the adrenal cortex, resulting in secondary male sex characteristics.

Adrenal medulla

The adrenal medulla produces the hormones epinephrine and norepinephrine under stimulation from the sympathetic division of the autonomic nervous system. Both of these hormones help increase blood flow to the brain and muscles to improve the fight-or-flight response to stress. These hormones also work to increase heart rate, breathing rate, and blood pressure, while decreasing blood flow and the function of organs not involved in emergency response.


Thepancreasis a large gland located in the abdominal cavity just below and behind thestomach. The pancreas is considered a heterocrine gland as it contains both endocrine and exocrine tissue. Pancreatic endocrine cells make up only about 1% of the total mass of the pancreas and are found in small clusters throughout the pancreas called islets of Langerhans. Within these islets there are 2 types of cells - alpha and beta cells. Alpha cells produce the hormone glucagon, which is responsible for raising blood glucose levels. Glucagon triggers muscle and liver cells to break down the polysaccharide glycogen to release glucose into the bloodstream. Beta cells produce the hormone insulin, which is responsible for lowering blood glucose levels after a meal. Insulin triggers the absorption of glucose from the blood into the cells, where it is added to glycogen molecules for storage.


The gonads—the ovaries in women and the testicles in men—are responsible for producing the body's sex hormones. These sex hormones determine the secondary sex characteristics of adult females and adult males.

(Video) Endocrine System Glands: Learn@Visible Body

  • Bullocks: THEbullocksare a pair of ellipsoidal organs located in the scrotum of males that produce the androgen testosterone in males after the onset of puberty. Testosterone affects many parts of the body, including muscles, bones, genitals and hair follicles. This hormone causes bone and muscle growth and strength, including accelerated growth of long bones during puberty. During puberty, testosterone controls the growth and development of male genitalia and body hair, including pubic, chest, and facial hair. In men who have inherited baldness genes, testosterone triggers the onset of androgenetic alopecia, commonly known as male pattern baldness. (Read usHis criticismfor an unbiased look at one way you can treat and reverse male pattern baldness.)
  • Ovaries: THEovariesare a pair of tonsils located in the pelvic cavity lateral to and above the uterus in women. The ovaries produce the female hormones progesterone and estrogen. Progesterone is most active in women during ovulation and pregnancy, where it maintains the right conditions in the human body to support a developing fetus. Estrogens are a group of related hormones that act as the primary female sex hormones. The release of estrogen during puberty triggers the development of secondary female sex characteristics, such as uterine growth, breast development, and pubic hair growth. Estrogen also triggers the increased bone growth during puberty that leads to adult height and proportions.


Theangeris a soft, triangular-shaped organ located in the chest behind the sternum. The thymus produces hormones called thymosins that help train and develop T-lymphocytes during fetal development and childhood. T-lymphocytes produced in the thymus protect the body from pathogens throughout a person's life. The thymus is dormant during adolescence and is slowly replaced by adipose tissue throughout a person's life.

Other organs that produce hormones

In addition to the glands of the endocrine system, many other non-glandular organs and tissues of the body also produce hormones.

  • Heart: Its cardiac muscle tissueheartis capable of producing the hormone atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) in response tohigh blood pressureflat. ANP works to lower blood pressure by causing vasodilation to provide more room for blood to pass through. ANP also reduces blood volume and pressure by causing the kidneys to excrete water and salt from the blood.
  • Kidneys: THEkidneysthey produce the hormone erythropoietin (EPO) in response to low blood oxygen levels. EPO released from the kidneys travels to the red bone marrow where it stimulates increased production of red blood cells. The number of red blood cells increases the oxygen-carrying capacity of the blood, eventually ending the production of EPO.
  • Digestive system: The hormones cholecystokinin (CCK), secretin and gastrin are all produced by the organs of the gastrointestinal tract. CCK, secretin, and gastrin help regulate the secretion of pancreatic juice, bile, and gastric juice in response to the presence of food in the stomach. CCK also plays an important role in the feeling of satiety or "fullness" after eating.
  • Adipose: Adipose tissue produces the hormone leptin which is involved in the management of appetite and energy use by the body. Leptin is produced at levels relative to the amount of adipose tissue in the body, allowing the brain to monitor the body's energy storage status. When the body contains a sufficient level of fat to store energy, the level of leptin in the blood tells the brain that the body is not starving and can function normally. If the level of adipose fat or leptin drops below a certain threshold, the body enters a state of starvation and tries to conserve energy through increased hunger and food intake and decreased energy use. Adipose tissue also produces very low levels of estrogen in both men and women. In obese individuals the large volume of adipose tissue can lead to abnormal estrogen levels.
  • Placenta: In pregnant women, the placenta produces several hormones that help maintain the pregnancy. Progesterone is produced to relax the uterus, protect the fetus from the motherimmune systemand prevent premature delivery of the fetus. Human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG) assists progesterone by signaling the ovaries to maintain estrogen and progesterone production throughout pregnancy.
  • Topical hormones: Prostaglandins and leukotrienes are produced by every tissue in the body (except blood tissue) in response to noxious stimuli. These two hormones mainly affect the cells that are local to the source of the damage, leaving the rest of the body free to function normally.

    1. Prostaglandins cause swelling, inflammation, increased sensitivity to pain, and increased local body temperature to help block damaged areas of the body from infection or further damage. They act as the body's natural bandages to keep pathogens out and swell around damaged joints like a natural plaster to limit movement.
    2. Leukotrienes help the body heal after prostaglandins kick in by reducing inflammation while helping white blood cells move into the area to clean up pathogens and damaged tissue.

Physiology of the Endocrine System

Endocrine System vs. Nervous System Function

The endocrine system works alongside the nervous system to form the body's control systems. The nervous system provides a very fast and tightly targeted system to activate specific glands and muscles throughout the body. The endocrine system, on the other hand, is much slower acting, but has very widespread, long-lasting and powerful effects. Hormones are distributed from the glands through the bloodstream throughout the body, affecting any cell with a receptor for a particular hormone. Most hormones affect cells in many organs or throughout the body, leading to many different and powerful responses.

Properties of hormones

Once the hormones have been produced by the glands, they are distributed through the body via the bloodstream. As hormones travel through the body, they pass through cells or across cell plasma membranes until they encounter a receptor for that particular hormone. Hormones can only affect target cells that have the appropriate receptors. This property of hormones is known as specificity. Hormonal specificity explains how each hormone can have specific effects on widespread parts of the body.

(Video) Previewing a New Interactive Guide to the Endocrine System

Many hormones produced by the endocrine system are classified as tropic hormones. A tropic hormone is a hormone that is able to trigger the release of another hormone in another gland. Tropic hormones provide a control pathway for hormone production as well as a way to control glands in distant areas of the body. Many of the hormones produced by the pituitary gland, such as TSH, ACTH, and FSH are tropic hormones.

Hormonal Regulation

Hormone levels in the body can be regulated by several factors. The nervous system can control hormone levels through the action of the hypothalamus and its releasing and inhibiting hormones. For example, TRH produced by the hypothalamus stimulates the anterior pituitary to produce TSH. Tropic hormones provide another level of control over hormone release. For example, TSH is a tropic hormone that stimulates the thyroid gland to produce T3 and T4. Diet can also control hormone levels in the body. For example, the thyroid hormones T3 and T4 require 3 or 4 iodine atoms, respectively, to be produced. In people who lack iodine in their diet, they will not produce sufficient levels of thyroid hormones to maintain a healthy metabolic rate. Finally, the number of receptors present on cells can vary from cell to cell in response to hormones. Cells exposed to high levels of hormones for prolonged periods of time can begin to reduce the number of receptors they produce, leading to reduced hormonal control of the cell.

Categories of Hormones

Hormones are classified into 2 categories according to their chemical composition and solubility: water-soluble and fat-soluble hormones. Each of these classes of hormones has specific mechanisms of action that dictate how they affect their target cells.

  • Water soluble hormones: Water-soluble hormones include peptide and amino acid hormones such as insulin, epinephrine, HGH, and oxytocin. As their name suggests, these hormones are water soluble. Water-soluble hormones cannot pass through the phospholipid bilayer of the plasma membrane and therefore depend on receptor molecules on the cell surface. When a water-soluble hormone binds to a receptor molecule on the surface of a cell, it causes a reaction inside the cell. This reaction can change a factor inside the cell, such as the permeability of the membrane or the activation of another molecule. A common reaction is to cause molecules of cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) to be synthesized from adenosine triphosphate (ATP) present in the cell. cAMP acts as a second messenger inside the cell where it binds to a second receptor to alter the function of the cell's physiology.
  • Lipid soluble hormones: Fat-soluble hormones include steroid hormones such as testosterone, estrogen, glucocorticoids, and mineralocorticoids. Because they are lipid soluble, these hormones are able to pass directly through the phospholipid bilayer of the plasma membrane and bind directly to receptors within the cell nucleus. Lipid-soluble hormones are able to directly control the function of a cell from these receptors, often causing specific genes to be transcribed into DNA to produce "messenger RNAs (mRNAs)" that are used to make proteins that affect its growth and function. cell.


What is the best way to memorize the endocrine system? ›

If you are struggling to remember all of the different glands involved in the endocrine system, think of a mnemonic device to make it easier. Why not try – HPPTPAPO – hypothalmus, pineal, pituitary, thyroid, parathyroid, adrenal, pancreas and ovary.

What is the endocrine system answers? ›

The glands and organs that make hormones and release them directly into the blood so they can travel to tissues and organs all over the body. The hormones released by the endocrine system control many important functions in the body, including growth and development, metabolism, and reproduction.

What are the 12 endocrine glands? ›

The following are integral parts of the endocrine system:
  • Hypothalamus. The hypothalamus is located at the base of the brain, near the optic chiasm where the optic nerves behind each eye cross and meet. ...
  • Pineal body. ...
  • Pituitary. ...
  • Thyroid and parathyroid. ...
  • Thymus. ...
  • Adrenal gland. ...
  • Pancreas. ...
  • Ovary.

What are the 5 main functions of the endocrine system? ›

  • Metabolism (the way you break down food and get energy from nutrients).
  • Growth and development.
  • Emotions and mood.
  • Fertility and sexual function.
  • Sleep.
  • Blood pressure.
May 12, 2020

What is the mnemonic for remembering endocrine hormones? ›

The mnemonic “FLAT PeG” can be used to recall all of the hormones released by the anterior pituitary. These are follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), prolactin, endorphins, and growth hormone (GH).

Why is it so hard to learn the endocrine system? ›

The endocrine system can be a difficult topic for students. It has 9 glands located from head to pelvis, complex biochemistry, and positive and negative feedback loops to identify. Don't let it raise your stress level.

What are the 7 hormones? ›

7 Types of Hormones and How They Affect Our Health
  • Testosterone. Testosterone is perhaps the most notorious type of hormone out there. ...
  • Estrogen. Estrogen is the female counterpart to testosterone. ...
  • Cortisol. ...
  • Insulin. ...
  • Human Growth Hormone. ...
  • Seratonin. ...
  • Melatonin. ...
  • Understand These Types of Hormones.
Sep 14, 2021

What is the endocrine system for dummies? ›

The endocrine system is made up of glands that make hormones. Hormones are the body's chemical messengers. They carry information and instructions from one set of cells to another. The endocrine (pronounced: EN-duh-krin) system influences almost every cell, organ, and function of our bodies.

What is the largest endocrine gland? ›

Thyroid gland is the largest endocrine gland of the body. ​ It is present in the neck region and is responsible for the secretion of hormones like thyroxine that control the metabolic rate in the body. ​

What are the 5 true endocrine organs? ›

Important endocrine glands include the pituitary, thyroid, parathyroid, thymus, and adrenal glands.

Which is the largest gland in human body? ›

The liver is the largest gland in the human body. It is also the largest (internal)organ in our body and can weigh up to 1.5 kg for a human adult. That is, about 1/50th of the body weight is because of the liver.

Which is the smallest endocrine gland? ›

The endocrine glands are ductless, thus, they discharge their secretions directly into the blood like thyroid glands, pituitary glands, etc. The smallest gland found in the body of a human being is the pineal gland.

What are the 4 main organs of the endocrine system? ›

The female ovaries, male testes, and pituitary, thyroid, and adrenal glands are major constituents of the endocrine system.

What does the pituitary gland do? ›

Anatomy of the Pituitary Gland

It regulates growth, metabolism, and reproduction through the hormones that it produces. The production of these hormones is either stimulated or inhibited by chemical messages sent from the hypothalamus to the pituitary. The posterior lobe produces two hormones, vasopressin and oxytocin.

What hormone is associated with memory? ›

Pregnenolone: Typically referred to as “the memory hormone,” pregnenolone works to clarify thinking, improve concentration, and prevent memory loss. It is the most abundant hormone in the brain.

What does oxytocin do? ›

In the brain, oxytocin acts as a chemical messenger and has an important role in many human behaviours including sexual arousal, recognition, trust, romantic attachment and mother–infant bonding. As a result, oxytocin has been called the 'love hormone' or 'cuddle chemical'.

What are 4 common problems with the endocrine system? ›

Some of the most common types of endocrine disorders include:
  • Menopause.
  • Diabetes.
  • Addison's disease.
  • Cushing's disease.
  • Graves' disease.
  • Hashimoto thyroiditis.
  • Hyperthyroidism/hypothyroidism.
  • Prolactinoma.

What is the most common problem of the endocrine system? ›

In the United States, the most common endocrine disease is diabetes. There are many others. They are usually treated by controlling how much hormone your body makes. Hormone supplements can help if the problem is too little of a hormone.

What are 3 problems of the endocrine system? ›

Failure of a gland to stimulate another gland to release hormones (for example, a problem with the hypothalamus can disrupt hormone production in the pituitary gland) A genetic disorder, such as multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN) or congenital hypothyroidism. Infection. Injury to an endocrine gland.

Which hormone is associated with stress? ›

Cortisol, the primary stress hormone, increases sugars (glucose) in the bloodstream, enhances your brain's use of glucose and increases the availability of substances that repair tissues. Cortisol also curbs functions that would be nonessential or harmful in a fight-or-flight situation.

How do you fix hormonal imbalance? ›

Here are some ways to naturally balance your hormones.
  1. Get enough protein. ...
  2. Exercise regularly. ...
  3. Maintain a moderate weight. ...
  4. Watch your gut health. ...
  5. Lower sugar intake. ...
  6. Reduce stress. ...
  7. Get enough sleep. ...
  8. Eat healthy fats.

What are the three most important hormones? ›

5 Important Hormones and How They Help You Function
  • Insulin. The fat-storage hormone, insulin, is released by your pancreas and regulates many of your metabolic processes. ...
  • Melatonin. ...
  • Estrogen. ...
  • Testosterone. ...
  • Cortisol.

What are the 3 types of glands? ›

The three mechanisms by which exocrine glands release their secretions include merocrine, apocrine, and holocrine.

What is the master gland of the endocrine system? ›

The pituitary gland is sometimes called the master gland of the endocrine system. This is because it controls the functions of many of the other endocrine glands.

Are glands an organ? ›

(gland) An organ that makes one or more substances, such as hormones, digestive juices, sweat, tears, saliva, or milk. Endocrine glands release the substances directly into the bloodstream. Exocrine glands release the substances into a duct or opening to the inside or outside of the body.

Which gland is shaped like a butterfly? ›

Your thyroid gland is located in the front of your neck, straddling your windpipe (trachea). It's shaped like a butterfly — smaller in the middle with two wide wings that extend around the side of your throat.

Is the gut an endocrine gland? ›

The Gut Is an Endocrine Organ That Contributes to Normal Metabolism and Disease. The intestine (gut) was previously recognized solely for its role in nutrient absorption, but it is now recognized as playing a much more complex role in systemic metabolic and immune function.

Is the gut an endocrine organ? ›

Abstract. Secretin, gastrin and cholecystokinin were the first discovered gut hormones. Today we recognize more than 30 gut hormone genes and a multitude of bioactive peptides, which make the gut the largest endocrine organ in the body.

What is the most important organ in the endocrine system? ›

The pituitary gland is located at the base of the brain beneath the hypothalamus and is no larger than a pea. It is often considered the most important part of the endocrine system because it produces hormones that control many functions of other endocrine glands.

What glands are essential for life? ›

Adrenals: The adrenal glands (each of which weighs about 4 grams and is about the size of your thumb) are situated just above the kidneys and consist of two parts, the adrenal medulla and the adrenal cortex. These glands produce hormones which are essential for life and help us cope with stress.

What gland is responsible for a sick person in bed? ›

The thymus gland plays a vital role in training the immune system to protect the body against infections, even cancer.

Which gland is known as Third Eye? ›

The pineal gland was commonly called the “third eye” for many reasons, including its location deep in the center of the brain and its connection to light via the circadian rhythm and melatonin secretion.

Which is the smallest organ in the body? ›

The pineal gland is the smallest organ in the human body. The pineal gland is located near the center of the brain. The name pineal comes as pineal is a small pine-shaped gland. The pineal gland controls the body's internal clock since it regulates the daily rhythms of the body.

What is the smallest cell in the human body? ›

The size of each ovum is 0.1mm in diameter. The smallest cell in the human body is the sperm (male gamete). Size of the sperm is 4 micrometers. Sperm is 20 times smaller than the ovum.

Which gland in your brain is sensitive to light? ›

The main function of the pineal gland is to receive information about the state of the light-dark cycle from the environment and convey this information by the production and secretion of the hormone melatonin.

What is the smallest hormone? ›

Thyrotropin-releasing hormone is one of the smallest hormones in the body, consisting of a miniature chain of just three amino acid building blocks. It is made by a cluster of nerve cells in the hypothalamus, an area at the base of the brain just above the pituitary gland.

Which endocrine gland decreases in size with age? ›

The pituitary gland is located just below (anterior pituitary) or in (posterior pituitary) the brain. This gland reaches its maximum size in middle age and then gradually becomes smaller.

Which gland produces insulin? ›

Endocrine glands release hormones (chemical messengers) into the bloodstream to be transported to various organs and tissues throughout the body. For instance, the pancreas secretes insulin, which allows the body to regulate levels of sugar in the blood.

Which gland is located at the base of the brain? ›

A pea-sized organ attached to the part of the brain called the hypothalamus. It lies at the base of the brain above the back of the nose.

How many glands are in the brain? ›

The hypothalamus, pituitary gland, and pineal gland are in your brain. The thyroid and parathyroid glands are in your neck.

How does aging affect the endocrine system? ›

Like all other body systems, the endocrine system undergoes age-related changes that negatively affect its functioning. As a result of these changes, older people are more prone to disturbed sleep patterns, have a reduced metabolic rate, lose bone density, accumulate body fat, and show increases in blood glucose.

What gland produces cortisol? ›

Cortisol is a hormone produced by the two adrenal glands, which are located on top of each kidney. The pituitary gland in the brain regulates cortisol production. Cortisol plays an important role in the stress response. Maintaining an adequate balance of cortisol is essential for health.

What gland is behind the thyroid gland? ›

The parathyroid glands are two pairs of small, oval-shaped glands. They are located next to the two thyroid gland lobes in the neck. Each gland is usually about the size of a pea.

What gland controls your body temperature? ›

The hypothalamus helps keep the body's internal functions in balance. It helps regulate: Appetite and weight. Body temperature.

Can a person live without a pituitary gland? ›

You can live without your pituitary gland as long as you take medication to replace the pituitary hormones that you're missing. The pituitary gland hormones are very important for maintaining several bodily functions. An untreated lack of all the pituitary hormones is life-threatening.

Which gland regulates metabolism? ›

Metabolism refers to all of the processes that go on inside your body, for example, the process of turning food into energy. The thyroid gland regulates metabolism by producing and secreting hormones into your bloodstream.

How do you remember exocrine and endocrine? ›

A helpful tip to remember the difference between endocrine and exocrine glands is to look at their prefixes. "Endo" means "inside," and endocrine glands release their products to the internal environment. "Exo" means "outside," and exocrine glands release their product to the external environment.

What is the endocrine system quick notes? ›

The endocrine system is made up of glands that make hormones. Hormones are the body's chemical messengers. They carry information and instructions from one set of cells to another. The endocrine (pronounced: EN-duh-krin) system influences almost every cell, organ, and function of our bodies.

What is the vocabulary of endocrine system? ›

Endocrine can refer to the glands in your body — called endocrine glands — and it also can describe the larger system that includes your glands and your hormones, called the endocrine system. The endocrine system is responsible for lots of functions, including regulating growth, metabolism, and even your mood.

What is the mnemonic for the adrenal glands? ›

The function of these three zones can be remembered by the mnemonic "Salt, Sugar, Sex," as they correlate to the function of the hormones produced in each layer of the adrenal cortex. The names of these zones can also be recalled by remembering "GFR" for glomerulosa, fasciculata, and reticularis.

What is the mnemonic for protein hormones? ›

Mnemonic Device

FLAT PEG: FSH (Follicle Stimulating Hormone), LH (Leutinizing Hormone), ACTH (Adrenocorticotropic Hormone), TSH (Thyroid Stimulating Hormone), Prolactin, Endophins, and Growth Hormones. This mnemonic is also useful because it can help you remember which hormones belong to which class.

What gland secretes melatonin? ›

Melatonin is a hormone secreted by the enigmatic pineal gland in response to darkness, hence the name hormone of darkness.

What are 3 main functions of the endocrine system? ›

blood sugar control (insulin); differentiation, growth, and function of reproductive organs (testosterone and estradiol); and. body growth and energy production (growth hormone and thyroid hormone).

What are the 4 overall roles of the endocrine system? ›

Your endocrine system: Makes hormones that control your moods, growth and development, metabolism, organs, and reproduction.

Which is the only hormone that can lower blood glucose? ›

Both hormones come from your pancreas — alpha cells in your pancreas make and release glucagon, and beta cells in your pancreas make and release insulin. The difference is in how these hormones contribute to blood sugar regulation. Glucagon increases blood sugar levels, whereas insulin decreases blood sugar levels.

What gland is known as the master gland of the body? ›

The pituitary gland is sometimes called the master gland of the endocrine system. This is because it controls the functions of many of the other endocrine glands.

What term means gland pain? ›

Adenitis is the inflammation of a gland.


1. How the Endocrine System Works
(Nemours KidsHealth)
2. Visible Body | Primary Organs and Hormones of the Endocrine System
(Visible Body)
3. How to learn the endocrine system with anatomy quizzes and labeling worksheets | Kenhub
(Kenhub - Learn Human Anatomy)
4. Lt Human Physiology | Endocrine Physiology Lab Walkthrough
5. Hormones: Learn@Visible Body
(Visible Body)
6. Hormone Circulation: Learn@Visible Body
(Visible Body)


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