The EU's response to migration and asylum | New | European Parliament (2023)

In 2015, there were 1.83 million illegal crossings at the EU's external borders. While this number fell toaround 330,000 in 2022, the Parliament is working on a series of proposals to address shortcomings in the EU's asylum and migration policies: from reforming the asylum system to strengthening border security, improving legal labor migration and promoting the integration of refugees.

FindEU immigration facts and figuresandthe reasons why people migrate

Reform of the European asylum system

Asylum seekers: sharing responsibility with frontline countries

In response to the refugee crisis in 2015, the European Commission presented proposals to reform the Common European Asylum System in 2016, including reforming the Dublin system to better distribute asylum seekers between EU countries. The Dublin system imposed a huge burden on a limited number of EU countries with external borders because they were responsible for processing all asylum applications. However, EU countries have failed to agree on how to share responsibilities.

In 2020, the Commission proposed a new aNew Deal on Migration and Asylum. The new asylum system aims to support frontline countries by introducing a new system of flexible contributions from other EU countries, ranging from relocating asylum seekers from the country of first entry to returning people deemed to have no right to stay. The new system is based on voluntary cooperation and flexible forms of support, which could become demands in times of stress.

Parliament agreed its negotiating position on the revision of the Asylum and Migration Management Regulation in April 2023. It is now ready to start talks with EU countries, with the aim of completion by February 2024.

Renewal of the EU Asylum Agency

In 2021, the Parliament supported the transformation of the European Asylum Support Office intoEU Asylum Agency. The revamped agency aims to help make asylum procedures in EU countries more uniform and faster.

Its 500 experts provide support to national asylum systems facing high caseloads, making overall EU migration management more efficient and sustainable. In addition, the new agency is responsible for monitoring whether fundamental rights are respected in the context of international protection procedures and reception conditions in EU countries.

Providing EU funds for asylum

In 2021, MEPs supported the creation of a new oneIntegrated Border Management Fundand agreed to allocate 6.24 billion euros to it. The fund should help EU countries strengthen their border management capabilities while ensuring respect for fundamental rights. It also contributes to a common, harmonized visa policy and introduces protective measures for vulnerable people arriving in Europe, in particular unaccompanied children.

Parliament also approved the renewed Asylum, Migration and Integration Fundwith a budget of €9.88 billion for 2021-22. The new fund should contribute to strengthening the common asylum policy, developing legal immigration in line with the needs of EU countries, supporting the integration of third-country nationals and combating irregular immigration. The funds should also serve to encourage EU countries to more fairly share the responsibility of hosting refugees and asylum seekers.

Read more aboutthe reform of the common European asylum system

Response to the refugee crisis in Ukraine

In addition to the asylum system, the EU has also established temporary protection mechanisms for specific groups of refugees or displaced persons. One such mechanism is theTemporary Protection Directive, which provides a framework for granting temporary protection. The directive was created in 2001 in response to the conflict in the Balkans.

More recently, when Russia's full-scale invasion of Ukraine began on 24 February 2022, the EU responded quickly and showed solidarity in action by helping people in need. This included immediate humanitarian aid, emergency civil protection assistance, border support, as well as providing protection to those leaving war and entering the EU. For the first time in its history, the EU activated the Temporary Protection Directive, setting the legal rules for managing the mass arrival of people.

Read more aboutEU measures to help Ukrainian refugees

Securing the EU's external borders and managing migration flows

Combating irregular immigration while respecting the rights of asylum seekers

Parliament worked tostricter border controlsand improve the ability of EU countries to track people entering Europe. In April 2023, the Parliament adopted its position on the revisions of the external border procedure. He will now start negotiations with the Council. It proposes a better vetting process, a faster asylum process at the border and fast returns for rejected asylum seekers.

It includes the possibility of a faster and simplified procedure for asylum applications immediately after screening. These should be completed in 12 weeks, including appeals. If a claim is refused or refused, the unsuccessful applicant should be returned within 12 weeks.

The new rules will also limit the use of the reservation. While the asylum claim is being examined or the return process is being processed, the asylum seeker must be hosted by the EU country. Detention should only be used as a last resort.

Read more attackling irregular immigration

Reinforcement of Frontex, the European Border and Coast Guard

Frontex, the EU's border and coast guard, helps manage the EU's external borders and fight cross-border crime.

The influx of refugees in 2015 put enormous pressure on national border authorities. Parliament called for Frontex to be strengthened and the Commission proposed to extend Frontex's mandate and turn it into a fullEuropean Border and Coast Guard Agency, aimed at strengthening the management and security of the EU's external borders and supporting national border guards.

It was officially launched at Bulgaria's external border with Turkey in October 2016. Frontex supports EU and Schengen countries in all aspects of border management, from on-the-ground support and combating cross-border crime, aerial surveillance and collecting information, to assist in return procedures.

Frontex has a standing force of more than 2,000 border guards. There are plans to increase this to10,000 border guardsuntil 2027.

Improving legal immigration with work permits

The EU is also working to boost legal immigration to address labor shortages, fill skills gaps and boost economic growth by:

The single permit and long-term resident status are currently being reviewed.

Read more abouthow the EU wants to boost legal labor migration

Promoting the integration of refugees in Europe

The Asylum, Migration and Integration Fund in action

The EU also takes measures to help migrants integrate in their new countries of origin. The Asylum, Migration and Integration Fund 2021-2027 provides direct funding to local and regional authorities for integration policies and programs focusing on counselling, education, language and other training, such as political orientation courses and career guidance.

Improving the integration of refugees with the new Pact on Migration and Asylum

The Reception Conditions Directive is being revised to ensure equivalent standards of reception in all EU countries in terms of material conditions, healthcare and an adequate standard of living for those seeking international protection.

To improve their chances of being able to live independently and integrate, asylum seekers should be able to work no later than six months from the date of their application. They will have access to language courses, as well as courses in civic education or vocational training. All asylum-seeking children must be enrolled in school no later than two months after their arrival.

Parliament and the Council reached a provisional agreement on the rules in December 2022. It must be formally approved by both bodies to enter into force.


How did the EU respond to the migrant crisis? ›

Since the height of the migration crisis in 2015, the EU has implemented measures to improve its control over external borders and migration flows. The EU and its member states are intensifying efforts to establish an effective, humanitarian and safe European migration policy.

What is the EU's pact on migration and asylum? ›

The pact builds on and amends the previous reform proposals. In line with a gradual approach proposed by the French Presidency of the Council in June 2022, the Member States reached an agreement on several reform aspects relating to the screening and registration of migrants arriving at the EU's external borders.

Is there solidarity on asylum and migration in the EU? ›

Article 80 TFEU clearly states that the policies on asylum, migration and border control as well as their implementation should be governed by the principle of solidarity and fair sharing of responsibility, 'including its financial implications', among the Member States.

What is the EU plan for Ukrainian refugees? ›

Rights under the temporary protection scheme include a residence permit, access to the labour market and housing, medical assistance, and access to education for children. Currently 4 million people from Ukraine benefit from the temporary protection mechanism. Data up to March 2023.

How is Europe responding to the refugee crisis? ›

The Temporary Protection Directive enacted by the EU gives refugees access to protection and to the labour market across the bloc. This has been a major step. The EU has also provided additional funds for countries that have to shoulder the burden of the inflow of refugees.

How to solve EU refugee crisis? ›

EU: Five Steps to Tackle Refugee Crisis
  1. Fixing the EU's broken asylum system. ...
  2. Robust search and rescue operations in the Mediterranean. ...
  3. A permanent relocation scheme to share asylum seekers across member states. ...
  4. Develop a list of “unsafe” countries whose nationals are presumed to need international protection.
Sep 4, 2015

What are the new pact on asylum and migration principles? ›

The New Pact on Migration and Asylum addresses migration, asylum, integration and border management. It aims to create more efficient and fair migration processes, reducing unsafe and irregular routes and promoting sustainable and safe legal pathways to those in need of protection.

Does the EU have an immigration policy? ›

Competences. Regular immigration: The EU is competent to lay down the conditions governing entry into and legal residence in a Member State, including for the purposes of family reunification, for third-country nationals.

Has the new pact on migration and Asylum been adopted? ›

The Commission will continue to support these efforts, and to build on other aspects highlighted by this report. The New Pact on Migration and Asylum is a key part of delivering on President von der Leyen's commitment in her political guidelines. The first Report on Migration and Asylum was adopted in September 2021.

What is EU's common European asylum system? ›

What is the EU's Common European Asylum System? The Common European Asylum System (CEAS) is the European Union's framework for asylum seekers. The CEAS sets out common standards and cooperation to ensure that asylum seekers are treated equally in an open and fair system wherever they apply.

Who takes the most asylum seekers in the EU? ›

Since 2013, Syria has been the country of citizenship of the largest number of asylum seekers in the EU.

What is the European Common asylum Policy? ›

The European Union is an area of protection for people fleeing persecution or serious harm in their country of origin. Asylum is a fundamental right and an international obligation for countries, as recognised in the 1951 Geneva Convention on the protection of refugees.

How does the European Union respond to Ukraine refugees? ›

The European Union (EU) and U.S. have responded with an unprecedented solidarity by providing emergency humanitarian aid and warm hospitality to the Ukrainian refugees. But as the war drags on, it raises the difficult question of how to sustain the goodwill and long-term support for the refugees in the months ahead.

Does the EU allow Ukraine refugees? ›

The document (with a valid passport) allows Ukrainian refugees to travel to another Schengen country or to cross the external borders of the European Union, as long as they do not leave Poland for more than 30 days (which would result in loss of Special Bill status).

Who pays for the Ukraine refugees? ›

Known as the Cohesion Funds, this includes finance from the European Social Fund and FEAD, the European Fund set up to help the most deprived. It can be spent on things such as temporary accommodation, food, blankets and clothing, psychological counselling, medical care and education.

How is the EU responding to Ukraine crisis? ›

The EU has imposed 10 packages of sanctions—or restrictive measures—intended to cripple Russia's ability to finance the war against Ukraine, enact costs on Russia's elites, and diminish Russia's economic base. Imposing sanctions requires unanimity among EU members.

How do countries benefit by accepting refugees? ›

Refugees bring productivity to their host countries, where they are integrated across various communities. They help enrich their local communities, creating a cultural diversity within the local population and helping nurture understanding and appreciation for social diversity.

Why are migrants coming to Europe? ›

A lack of cooperation. Every year, tens of thousands of migrants fleeing war, persecution and poverty risk treacherous routes to Europe in search of safety and better economic prospects.

What are solutions to help refugees? ›

Ways to Welcome
  1. Grant people access to asylum. Everyone should be allowed to enter another country to seek asylum – it's a human right. ...
  2. Sponsor refugees. ...
  3. Reunite families. ...
  4. Provide medical visas. ...
  5. Allow people to study. ...
  6. Embrace technology. ...
  7. Help newcomers settle in. ...
  8. Offer work visas or employment.

Is there a solution for refugees? ›

The ultimate goal of refugee protection is to find durable solutions which will enable refugees to live in safety and rebuild their lives. UNHCR attempts to secure one of three durable solutions for refugees around the world – voluntary repatriation, local integration or resettlement.

What are some ways to help end the refugee crisis and help the countries affected? ›

Ways to help right now:
  • Help the IRC support refugee families in crisis with a donation: Donate now.
  • Take action. ...
  • Look for IRC volunteer opportunities assisting refugees in the U.S.
  • Sponsor a refugee family.
  • Find out other ways to support the IRC's refugee resettlement work across the U.S.: See where we work.

What is the new EU action plan against migrant smuggling? ›

The EU's New Pact on Migration and Asylum puts preventing and combating smuggling at the centre of its comprehensive approach to migration. The 2021-2025 EU action plan against migrant smuggling will focus on: intra-EU cooperation and exchange of information; emerging counter-smuggling phenomena; and.

What is the new pact on migration and asylum fresh start? ›

The Pact sets out improved and faster procedures throughout the asylum and migration system. And it sets in balance the principles of fair sharing of responsibility and solidarity. This is crucial for rebuilding trust between Member States and confidence in the capacity of the European Union to manage migration.

What are the new conditions in the Pact Act? ›

Based on the PACT Act, we've added 2 new Agent Orange presumptive conditions: High blood pressure (also called hypertension) Monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS)

Which European countries are not accepting immigrants? ›

Gallup's updated Migrant Acceptance Index ranks North Macedonia, Hungary, Serbia, Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina and Montenegro – southeast European countries that along with Greece and Italy faced the initial waves of refugees – as the least-accepting countries for migrants.

Which EU country has the most immigrants? ›

In 2021 Russia had the highest net migration figures in Europe at 320,617 people, while Turkey had the lowest with negative net-migration figure of 69,729. After Russia, Germany and Spain had the second and third highest net-migration figures in that year, at 312,735 and 275,022 respectively.

Can an immigrant become an EU citizen? ›

Anyone is eligible for a European passport, provided that they pursue one of the following three options: Get European citizenship through descent or ancestry. Get EU citizenship through naturalization. Apply for a European passport through a citizenship-by-investment program.

Are asylum seekers forced or voluntary migration? ›

A person seeking asylum is forced to flee their country to another because of fear of persecution or for their safety at home. Asylum seekers are a type of forced migrant, meaning they migrate involuntarily.

Are refugees forced to migrate? ›

A migrant is fundamentally different from a refugee. Refugees are forced to flee to save their lives or preserve their freedom, but “migrant” describes any person who moves, usually across an international border.

What has Biden done for asylum seekers? ›

The Biden Administration's proposed policy would bar asylum seekers who crossed through another country on their way to the southern U.S. border, unless they had previously applied for (and been denied) asylum elsewhere or managed to receive an appointment at a port of entry through a new U.S. government app for ...

How many refugees has the EU taken in? ›

Recognition of refugees

In 2021, EU countries took 524,400 first instance asylum decisions. 39% of these decisions were positive: 112,700 persons received refugee status, 61,400 were granted subsidiary protection status and.

How many immigrants does the EU take? ›

Migration flows: Immigration to the EU was 2.3 million in 2021.

Which European country is best for asylum seekers? ›

Asylum: best countries to find the help
  • The countries with the most favorable conditions are Germany, Finland, UK, Canada, and the USA;
  • Slightly less engaging circumstances in Sweden, France, Switzerland, and Norway;

What countries does the US grant asylum to? ›

U.S. Government-Issued Asylum Statistics
  • Venezuela.
  • China (PRC)
  • El Salvador.
  • Guatemala.
  • Turkey.
  • Honduras.
  • Egypt.
  • India.

What country produces the most asylum seekers? ›

Ranking of the major source countries of refugees as of 2022
CharacteristicNumber of refugees
Syrian Arab Rep.6,824,062
South Sudan2,362,756
9 more rows
Jan 5, 2023

What is the European Agenda on migration? ›

A strategic document of the European Union presented in May 2015 outlining a comprehensive approach to migration management addressing the asylum and migration challenges as well as defining steps to be taken to ensure strong borders, fair procedures and a sustainable system able to anticipate future problems in the ...

What is the asylum rule? ›

Asylum is a form of protection which allows an individual to remain in the United States instead of being removed (deported) to a country where he or she fears persecution or harm. Under U.S. law, people who flee their countries because they fear persecution can apply for asylum.

Who are the most common asylum seekers? ›

Nationality of asylum seekers and refugees

In 2021, 42% of applicants were nationals of Middle Eastern countries, and 23% were nationals of African countries. This pattern shifted in 2022 with the largest nationality groups being Asian countries (31% of applicants) and European countries (24% of applicants).

Can Ukrainians travel freely in the EU? ›

Ukrainian citizens can currently travel to Europe's Schengen Zone without a visa or any prior authorization. However, it is expected that starting from 2024, all Ukrainian citizens will have to obtain a quick online document known as ETIAS before entering any of the EU/Schengen member countries.

Does Ukraine want to be an EU member? ›

Ukraine's desire to join the European Union dates back to 1993 when the government declared that integration to the EU is the main foreign policy objective.

How long can Ukrainians stay in European Union? ›

Coming to the EU

Ukrainian citizens have the right to move freely within the Union after being admitted to the territory for a period of 90 days.

How much money do Ukrainian refugees get in USA? ›

The amount of the payment depends on the state in which the refugee resides. In 2023, the minimum will be $914 per month for a single person or $1,371 for a married couple.

What are the benefits of Ukrainian refugees in the US? ›

Refugee benefits include the Reception and Placement Program. Matching Grant, Preferred Communities, Refugee Cash and Medical Assistance, and Refugee Support Services. They can also access mainstream benefits like TANF, SNAP, and SSI (if appropriate).

Which countries have given the most to Ukraine? ›

The United States has given the most in grants, valued at 25 billion euros ($26.5 billion). While big, wealthy countries can afford to provide more in absolute terms, smaller countries are making significant offerings of their own.

How did the EU respond to the Ukraine crisis? ›

The EU has imposed 10 packages of sanctions—or restrictive measures—intended to cripple Russia's ability to finance the war against Ukraine, enact costs on Russia's elites, and diminish Russia's economic base. Imposing sanctions requires unanimity among EU members.

How did Europe respond to the economic crisis? ›

how did Europe respond to the economic crisis? Britain preserved democracy by electing a multiparty coaltiion, increased tariffs and taxes and regulated the currency. France also maintained a democracy. Scandanavian countries did as well with Socialist governments.

How has Europe responded to the Ukrainian refugee crisis? ›

The European Union (EU) and U.S. have responded with an unprecedented solidarity by providing emergency humanitarian aid and warm hospitality to the Ukrainian refugees. But as the war drags on, it raises the difficult question of how to sustain the goodwill and long-term support for the refugees in the months ahead.

How does the EU respond to conflict? ›

Mediation Support

The EEAS promotes the use of mediation and dialogue as a tool of first response to emerging and ongoing crisis. Mediation is part of the EU's preventive diplomacy, since the adoption of the 2009 'EU Concept on Strengthening EU Mediation and Dialogue Capacities.

Why did the EU reject Ukraine? ›

According to observers, this is due to such factors as the unwillingness of the EU to expand to the post-Soviet space, the poor performance of the Ukrainian economy, the lack of democracy (during the 1990s), and the internal instability (following the Orange Revolution).

How did the EU respond to the Russian annexation of Crimea? ›

The United States and the European Union responded by enacting sanctions against Russia for its role in the crisis, and urged Russia to withdraw. Russia has accused the United States and the EU of funding and directing the revolution and retaliated to the sanctions by imposing its own.

How does the Ukraine Russia conflict affect the EU? ›

Energy prices have been volatile since mid-2021. The price of fuels in the EU has risen as a consequence of Russia's unprovoked and unjustified aggression against Ukraine, which has also led to concerns related to the security of energy supply.

How did the EU respond to the 2009 economic crisis? ›

The combined crises had catastrophic consequences for economic growth, investment, employment and the fiscal position of many Member States. The EU engaged in short-term 'fire-fighting' measures such as bailouts to save banks and help stressed sovereigns, while at the same time reforming the inadequate framework.

How the euro crisis was successfully resolved? ›

History of the Crisis

The crisis was eventually controlled by the financial guarantees of European countries, who feared the collapse of the euro and financial contagion, and by the International Monetary Fund (IMF). Rating agencies downgraded several Eurozone countries' debts.

What caused the EU crisis? ›

The Eurozone Crisis began in 2009 when investors became concerned about growing levels of sovereign debt among several members of the European Union. As they began to assign a higher risk premium to the region, sovereign bond yields increased and put a strain on national budgets.

What is the UN doing to help Ukrainian refugees? ›

Refugee needs: $1.7 billion in 2023

In parallel with the OCHA appeal, the UN refugee agency (UNHCR) is also seeking $1.7 billion to help Ukrainian refugees in 10 host countries: Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Moldova, Poland, Romania and Slovakia.

Does Europe's unprecedented response to Ukrainian refugees face new challenges? ›

Europe's unprecedented response to Ukrainian refugees faces new challenges. Governments are trying to find more housing and meet other needs, as the humanitarian situation in Ukraine may prompt more to flee this winter.

What has the US done to help Ukraine refugees? ›

In addition to welcoming over 267,000 Ukrainians who have been forced to flee their homes to the United States and creating the Uniting for Ukraine program, we have provided $340 million in refugee assistance to our European partners who continue to host millions of Ukrainians, representing the largest population ...

What was the EU created in response to? ›

Origins. The EU represents one in a series of efforts to integrate Europe since World War II. At the end of the war, several western European countries sought closer economic, social, and political ties to achieve economic growth and military security and to promote a lasting reconciliation between France and Germany.

What is a conflict of interest in the European Parliament? ›

A conflict of interest exists where a Member of the European Parliament has a personal interest that could improperly influence the performance of his or her duties as a Member.

What is the effect of the Ukraine war on the EU economy? ›

The war added heavily to the inflationary pressures building up in the euro area during the post-pandemic recovery and pushed up consumer prices, especially for energy (Chart 2a) and food. Lane, P.R. (2022), “Inflation diagnostics”, ECB Blog, 25 November.


Top Articles
Latest Posts
Article information

Author: Lidia Grady

Last Updated: 01/11/2024

Views: 5235

Rating: 4.4 / 5 (45 voted)

Reviews: 84% of readers found this page helpful

Author information

Name: Lidia Grady

Birthday: 1992-01-22

Address: Suite 493 356 Dale Fall, New Wanda, RI 52485

Phone: +29914464387516

Job: Customer Engineer

Hobby: Cryptography, Writing, Dowsing, Stand-up comedy, Calligraphy, Web surfing, Ghost hunting

Introduction: My name is Lidia Grady, I am a thankful, fine, glamorous, lucky, lively, pleasant, shiny person who loves writing and wants to share my knowledge and understanding with you.